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Shaklee’s commitment to clinical research is reflected in every product it makes. The ideal balance of nature and science is not achieved by guesswork. It is a meticulous process of research and development, testing, and refinement. That’s why Shaklee continues to invest in clinical research as part of its ongoing commitment to scientific integrity. The following peer-reviewed clinical studies sponsored by Shaklee scientifically substantiate either Shaklee products or the testing of concepts leading to Shaklee products.

The list below consists of two parts. Section A identifies studies performed on ingredients in Shaklee’s current products, while the second lists studies pertaining to earlier versions of Shaklee products.

Product Clinical Studies

 

ATHLETES - GENERAL

  • Nutrient Intake of Elite Male and Female Nordic Skiers. Ellsworth, Hewitt, Haskell. Physician Sports Med 1985; 13: 78-92.

  • The Coach and Nutritionist - A Partnership in Performance. A Case Study - Applied Nutrition with the US Ski Team and Mount Everest Expedition. Shrimpton, Ottaway, eds. In: Nutrition in Sport: Proceedings of a National Symposium held at the Institute of Directors, London 1985: 76-83.

  • Transitory Hematologic Effects of Moderate Exercise are not Influenced by Iron Supplementation. Hegenauer, Strause, Saltman, Dann, White, Green. Eur J Appl Physiol 1983;52:57-61.

  • Dietary Intakes of Male Endurance Cyclists During Training and Racing. Jensen, Zaltas, Whittam. J Am Diet Assoc. 1992;92:986-8.

 

VITAMIN B-COMPLEX

  • Enhancement of Folic Acid Dissolution in Solid Dosage Forms of Dietary Supplements. DeBernardi, Subramanian, Hegenauer. American Chemical Society, Division of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, Spring 2002 (poster/abstract).

 

CARBO-CRUNCH® & SHAKLEE PERFORMANCE®

  • Carbohydrate Supplementation Spares Muscle Glycogen During Variable-Intensity Exercise. Yaspelkis, Patterson, Anderla, Ding, Ivy. J Appl Physiol 1993;75:1477-85.


SHAKLEE PERFORMANCE®

  • The Physiology of Human-Powered Flight. Weiss. Science News 1990;137:140.

  • The Effects of Sodium: Carbohydrate (Na: Carb) Ratios in Rehydration beverages (RB) on Plasma (PG), Osmolality (PO), Volume (PV), and Subject Tolerance (ST). FASEB J 1990;4:A381 (abstract).

  • The Daedalus Project: Physiological Problems and Solutions. Nadel, Bussolari. Am Scientist 1988:76:351-60.

  • Glucose-Electrolyte Ingestion: Influence on Endurance Factors in Highly Trained Female Cyclists. Sirotniak, Foster. Med Sci Sports Exer Suppl 1992;24:S121 (abstract).

  • Vascular Uptake of Rehydration Fluids in Hypohydrated Men at Rest and Exercise. Greenleaf, Geelen, Jackson et al. NASA Technical Memorandum 1992:1039-42.

  • Vascular Uptake of Rehydration Fluids in Resting Hypohydrated Men. Greenleaf, Geelen, Saumet et al. FASEB J 1991;5:A1147 (abstract).

  • Hypervolemia in Men from Drinking Hyperhydration Fluids at Rest and During Exercise. Greenleaf, Looft-Wilson,Wisherd et al. NASA Technical Memorandum 1994:46-57.

  • Drink Composition and Cycle-Ergometer Endurance in Men: Carbohydrate, Na+, Osmolality. Greenleaf, Looft-Wilson, Wisherd et al. NASA Technical Memorandum 1994:46-50.

  • CD4+/CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Ratio: Effects of Rehydration Before Exercise in Dehydrated Men. Greenleaf, Jackson, Lawless. Med Sci Sports Exer 1995;27:194-9.

  • Drinking-Induced Plasma Vasopressin and Norepinephrine Changes in Dehydrated Humans. Geelen, Greenleaf, Keil. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:2131-35.

  • Hypervolemia in Men from Fluid Ingestion at Rest and During Exercise. Greenleaf, Looft-Wilson, Wisherd et al. Aviat Space Environ Med 1998;69:374-86.


PHYSIQUE®

  • Carbohydrate-Protein Complex Increases the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Storage after Exercise. Zawadzki, Yaspelkis, Ivy. J Appl Physiol 1992;72:1854-9.

  • Dietary Supplements Affect the Anabolic Hormones after Weight Training Exercise. Chandler, Byrne, Patterson, Ivy. J Appl Physiol 1994;76:839-45.

  • Pre-Exercise Hypervolemia and Cycle Ergometer Endurance in Men. Greenleaf, Looft-Wilson, Wisherd, McKenzie, Jensen, Whittam. Biology of Sport 1997;14:103-14.

 

BETA CAROTENE

  • Comparison of Serum Carotene Repletion with Two Levels of Carrots and an Algae-Derived Product in Healthy Adult Humans. Pattison, Spiller, Jensen, Whittam, Scala, Fed Proc 1985; 44:771 (abstract).

  • Repletion and Depletion of Serum Alpha and Beta Carotene in Humans with Carrots and an Algae-Derived Supplement. Jensen, Pattison, Spiller, Whittam, Scala. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 1985;7:189-98.

  • Observations on the Effects in Humans of Cis- and Trans-beta Carotene Isomers. Jensen, Howes, Spiller, Scala. Am J Clin Nutr 1986;43:689 (abstract).

  • Acute Effects of Dietary Carotenes on Serum Alpha and Beta Carotene in Humans. Jensen, Spiller, Pattison, Whittam, Scala. Nutr Rep Int 1986;33:117-22.

  • Observations on the Effects of Ingesting Cis- and Trans-Beta-Carotene Isomers on Human Serum Concentrations. Jensen, Howes, Spiller, Pattison, Whittam, Scala. Nutr Rep Int 1987;35:413-22.

  • Effect of Graded Levels of Beta-Carotene on Skin Yellowing in Healthy Humans. Spiller, Jensen, Dronkert, Whittam. FASEB J 1989;3:A465 (abstract).

CALCIUM

  • Effects of High Calcium Intake on Magnesium Excretion. Spiller, Jensen, Whittam. FASEB J 1988;2:A1099 (abstract).

  • Effect of Nutrient Intervention on Bone Mineral Density and Biomarkers of Bone Remodeling. Jensen, Block. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149 (S11);S30:A119 (abstract).


COSMETICS & TOILETRIES

  • Salon Testing: Art or Science? Whittam. Cosmetics & Toiletries 1988;103:43-6.

  • Use of the MatTek EPI-100 in vitro System to Screen Antioxidant Efficacy. Rachui, Duke, Allen. J Toxicol Cut Ocular Toxicol 1995;14:237-50.

  • Clinical Testing of Personal Care Products. Roberts, Greene. The Chemist 1999:23-26.

DENTIFRICE

  • Clinical Study of the Effect of an Organic Dentifrice on Gingivitis and Plaque Formation. Soparkar, Newman, Depaola, Poovaiah. J Dental Res 1980;59:276 (abstract).

  • Clinical Study of the Effectiveness of an Organic Dentifrice for Stain Removal. Newman, Soparkar, Depaola, Poovaiah. J Dental Res 1980;59:276 (abstract)

 

OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS

  • Marine Lipids and Atherosclerosis: A Review. Davidson, Liebson, Cardiovascular Reviews & Reports. Vol 7, No. 5, May 1986.

  • Effect of Low Dose Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Plasma Fatty Acids and Lipids. Spiller, Jensen, Scala. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:857 (abstract).

  • Plasma Lipids on Three Levels of Fish Oil Intake in Healthy Human Subjects. Jensen, Spiller, Wookey, Wong, Whittam, Scala. Nutr Rep Int 1988;38:165-72.


FIBER

  • Correlation of Gastrointestinal Transit Time to Fecal Weight in Adult Humans at Two Levels of Fiber Intake. Spiller, Wong, Whittam, Scala. Nutr Rep Int 1982;25:23-30.

  • Modification of Human Fecal Steroid Excretion by a Dietary Fiber Supplement. Story, Petro, Spiller, Wong, Whittam, Scala. Fed Proc. 1983;42:A4512 (abstract).

  • Effect of Four Levels of Hard Wheat Bran on Fecal Composition and Transit Time in Healthy Young Women. Spiller, Wong, Nunes, et al. Fed Proc 1984;43:392 (abstract).

  • Modification of Fecal Steroid Excretion in Humans by Hard Red Wheat Bran. Story, Petro, Furumoto, Scala, Spiller. XIII International Congress of Nutrition, Brighton, UK 1985 (abstract).

  • Subjective Evaluation of Satiety After Fiber Consumption. Wookey, Jensen, Moshrefi, Spiller. Fed Proc 1986;45:A2575 (abstract).

  • Effect of Increasing Levels of Hard Wheat Fiber on Fecal Weight, Minerals, Steroids and Gastrointestinal Transit Time in Healthy Young Women. Spiller, Story, Wong et al. J Nutr 1986;116:778-85.

  • Effects of Solid and Liquid Guar Gum on Plasma Cholesterol and Triglyceride and Triglyceride Concentrations in Moderate Hypercholesterolemia. Superko, Haskell, Sawrey-Kubicek, Farquhar. Am J Cardiol 1988;62:51-5.

  • The Effect of Three Doses of a Water Soluble Dietary Fiber (WSDF) Mixture on Plasma Cholesterol in Humans. Spiller, Jensen, Gates, Nichols, Whittam. International Symposium on Multiple Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Washington DC 1990 (abstract).

  • Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Efficacy of a Mixture of Water Soluble Dietary Fibers (WSDF) Compared to Guar Gum. International Symposium on Multiple Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Washington DC 1990 (abstract).

  • The Relationship of Water Soluble Dietary Fiber (WSDF) Structure to Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Efficacy in Humans. Spiller, Jensen, Gates, Nichols, Whittam. International Symposium on Multiple Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease, Washington DC 1990 (abstract).

  • Role of Water-Soluble Dietary Fiber in the Management of Elevated Plasma Cholesterol in Healthy Subjects. Haskell, Spiller, Jensen, Ellis, Gates. Am J Cardiol 1992;69:433-9.

  • The Effect of Acacia Gum Versus a Mixture of Water-Soluble Dietary Fibers on Blood Lipids in Humans. Jensen, Spiller, Gates, Miller, Whittam. FASEB J 1992;6:A1654 (abstract).

  • The Effect of Acacia Gum Versus a Mixture of Water-Soluble Dietary Fibers on Blood Lipids in Humans. Jensen, Spiller, Gates, Miller, Whittam. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:147-54.

  • Long-term Effects of Water-Soluble Dietary Fiber in the Management of Hypercholesterolemia in Healthy Men and Women. Jensen, Haskell, Whittam. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:34-37.


HERBS

  • An Herbal Approach to Ease the Transition to Menopause. Manning. Nutr in Complementary Care (newsletter) Winter 2000;2(2):3.

  • Herbs in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Diseases. Westerdahl. Nutrition in Complementary Care (newsletter) Winter 2000;2 (20):16-19.

IMMUNITY

  • An Open-label Study of Administration of EH0202, a Health-food Additive, to Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. Kaji, Yoshida, Nagata, Yamashita, Mizukoshi, Honda, Kojima, Kaneko. 

  • Journal of Gastroenterology , February 2004. Vol 39, pp. 873-878.

INSTANT PROTEIN® SOY MIX

  • Effects of a High-Protein Supplement on Body Weight and Blood Constituents of Overweight and Obese Individuals. Albanese, Wein, Carroll. Nutr Rep Int 1984;29:193-204.

  • Biological and Biochemical Evaluation of Commercial Powdered Protein Products. Jenkins, Mitchell. Nutrition Reports Intl. Sept 1981. Vol 24. No. 3.


MEAL SHAKES

  • Effect of Low-Calorie Diets on Retinol-Binding Protein (RBP) Status in Women. Wookey, Sacks, Jensen, Scala, Spiller. Am Diabetes Assoc 47th Scientific Sessions Meeting, Indianapolis, 1987 (abstract).

MULTIVITAMIN - MINERAL SUPPLEMENTATION

  • Effects of Calcium and Micronutrients on Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Bone Loss. J Am Med Assoc 1980;244:1915 (abstract).

  • Effects of Vitamin/Mineral Intervention on Increasing Bone Density of Postmenopausal Women. 4th European Nutrition Conference. The Hague, Netherlands 1983 (abstract).

  • Some Effects of Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation in Healthy Young Women. Spiller, Pattison, Jensen, Wong, Whittam, Scala. Fed Proc 1985;44:1283 (abstract).

  • Multivitamin-mineral Supplementation: Effects on Blood Chemistries of College-Age Women. Spiller, Pattison, Jensen, Wong, Whittam, Scala. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 1985;7:217-22.

  • Calcium Nutrition and Skeletal and Alveolar Bone Health. Albanese, Lorenze, Edelson . Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:741-55.

  • Training for Cross-Country Skiing and Iron Status. Haymes, Puhl, Temples. Med Sci Sports Med 1986;18:162-7.

  • Dietary Supplements. Jensen, Briggs. J Am Med Assoc 1987;258:908-10.

  • Effect of Age and Fractures on Bone Loss and Calcium Needs of Women 45 to 85+ years of Age. Albanese, Edelson, Lorenze, Wein, Carroll. Nutr Rep Int 1985;31:1093-115.

  • Homocysteine Lowering in Men and Women with Normal Plasma Homocysteine Levels. Spiller, Bruce, Jensen. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:530 (abstract).

  • Effect of Long-Term Vitamin-Mineral Supplements on Immune Response in Older Healthy Adults. Spiller, Whittam, Bruce, Morse, Chernoff, Jensen. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:511 (abstract).

  • Improvement in Folate Indices in Blood and Seminal Plasma Following Vitamin Supplementation in Smokers and Nonsmokers. Wallock, Tamura, Ames, Johnston, Gretz, Jacob. Experimental Biology 1999:671.10 (abstract).


CHROMIUM

  • Chromium and Exercise Training: Effect on Obese Women. Grant, Chandler, Castle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29:992-8.


SELENIUM

  • Cytotoxic Activity of Selenium Compounds and Glutathione Peroxidase Assessed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Spallholz, Feitas, Hu, Whittam. Fed Proc 1982;41:529 (abstract).

  • Selenium Intake and Metabolic Balance in 10 men Consuming Self-Selected Diets in a Selenium-Deficient Area of Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. Luo, Yang, Wei et al. Fed Proc 1984;43:473 (abstract).

  • Effect of Selenium Supplements on the Selenium Levels and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity of Residents in a Selenium-Deficient Area of Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. Wei, Luo, Yang et al. Fed Proc 1984;43:473 (abstract).

  • Selenium Intake and Metabolic Balance of 10 Men from a Low Selenium area of China. Luo, Wei, Yang., et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:31-7.

  • Bioavailability of Selenium to Residents in a Low-Selenium Area of China. Luo, Wei, Yang. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:439-48.


SHAMPOO

  • Evaluation of Relative Shampoo Detergency. Thompson, Lemaster, Allen, Whittam. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1985;36:271-86.


SOY

  • Effects of Supplemental Soy Protein in Hypercholesterolemic Postmenopausal Women. Bruce, Spiller, Jensen, Haskell, Gardner. Cardiovascular Health: A National Conference, San Francisco 1998 (abstract).

  • The Effect of Soy Protein With or Without Isoflavones Relative to Milk Protein on Plasma Lipids in Hypercholesterolemic Postmenopausal Women. Gardner, Newell, Cherin, Haskell. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:728-35.

 

VITAMIN C

  • The Kinetics of Vitamin C in Human Blood Plasma from Vitamin C Supplements. Poovaiah, Rider, Scala. Fed Proc 1980;39:557 (abstract).

  • Automated Testing of Slowly Changing Levels of Analytes in Mixtures, Pattison, Allen, Ashley. Clinical Chemistry, Vol 28, No. 7. 1982.

VITAMIN E

  • Alfalfa, Vitamin E and Autoimmune Disorders. Whittam, Jensen, Hudson. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62;1025-6.


 

Clinical Studies Performed on Ingredients in Shaklee’s Former Products

 

SHAKLEE FITNESS®

  • Response of Serum Glucose and Insulin to Meals of Various Compositions Fed after Exercise. Butterfield, Borchers. Sports Med Training Rehab 1993;4:304 (abstract).

  • Effects of Diet and Exercise on Weight Loss, Fat Distribution and Blood Lipid Changes in Moderately Obese Older Women. Fox, Thompson, Moynihan, Gylfadottir, Butterfield. Med Sci Sports Exer 1994;26:S58 (abstract).

  • The Effect of Diet and Exercise on Basal Metabolic Rate in Older Women. Thompson, Moynihan, Gylfadottir, Vizioli, Butterfield. Med Sci Sports Exer 1994;26:S79 (abstract).

  • Effects of Diet and Exercise on Common Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Moderately Obese Women. Fox, Thompson, Butterfield et al. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;63:225-33.

  • Effects of Diet and Exercise on Energy Expenditure in Postmenopausal Women. Thompson, Gylfadottir, Moynihan, Jensen. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Oct, 66:867-873.

FRUIT BARS

  • Postprandial Glycemia on Two Sweet Confections with Different Carbohydrate Patterns. Chuck, Scala, Spiller, Whittam. Fed Proc 1982;41:398 (abstract)


SLIM PLAN

  • Safety, Effectiveness and Tolerance of 800 and 1000 Calorie Diets Incorporating Two Packages of Meal-Shake Daily. Sacks, Blankenbaker, Minear. Shaklee Corporation, 1983.

  • Weight Loss on a Combined Regimen of Formula Diet and Traditional Food. Whittam, Chuck, Ikemiya. Whittam, Chuck, Ikemiya et al. 4th International Conference on Obesity, New York City 1983 (abstract).

  • Weight Management Program Designed for and Administered by Non-Professional Leaders. Whittam, Scala, Sacks, 39. Saltman, Altshul. 4th European Nutrition Conference, The Hague, Netherlands 1983 (abstract).

  • 630 Kcal Formula Diet Versus 1,200 Kcal Balanced Deficit Diet: Comparison of Weight Loss and Safety. Minear, Blankenbaker, Sacks. AM Diet Assoc Annual Meeting 1983 (abstract).

  • Compulsive Eating, Depression and Failure to Complete a Behavioral GroupWeight Loss Program. Hoage, Fediuk. 4th International Congress on Obesity, New York City 1983 (abstract).

  • Postprandial Hyperglycemia in a Complete Liquid Formula Diet, its Carbohydrate Fraction and Glucose. Spiller, Ashley, Whittam, Scala. International Congress of Diabetes and Nutrition, Crete, Greece 1983 (abstract).

  • Safety and Effect on Weight, Hemoglobin A-1C, Serum Glucose and Blood Pressure of a Liquid Formula Diet Combined with Traditional Food in Adult Diabetic Patients: A Pilot Study. Dronkert, Spiller, Whittam, Scala. Diabetes and Hypertension Meeting, Bern, Switzerland 1984 (abstract).

  • Effect on Postprandial Glycemia of a Formula Diet and its Carbohydrate Fraction With or Without Protein and Fat. Spiller, Ashley, Chuck, Pattison, Whittam, Scala. Am J Clin Nutr 1984;39:671 (abstract).

  • Effect on Protein Quantity and Quality on the Serum Glucose Response to the Sugars of a Formula Diet. Spiller, Pattison, Jensen, Whittam, Scala. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:854 (abstract).

  • The Effects of Aerobic Conditioning and/or Caloric Restriction in Overweight Men and Women. Hagan, Upton, Wong, Whittam. Med Sci Sports Exer 1986;18:87-94.

  • Effect of Protein Dose on Serum Glucose and Insulin Response to Sugars. Spiller, Jensen, Pattison, Chuck, Whittam, Scala. Am J Clin Nutr 1987;46:474-80.

  • Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Vegetable Protein in a Hypocaloric Diet. Jenkins, Wolever, Spiller et al. Atherosclerosis 1989;78:99-107.

Published Research